Learning Portfolio 3 – Item 2

Question 4: Examples of Principles of Performance Load

A car is a good example of reduced in performance load since they help kinematic load. Because the physical effort to walk or run to get to one destination to another is no longer present using a car to get to one destination to another.

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Another example that suits the principles of performance load is a stopwatch since we don’t have to count out loud or consider about pacing and remember what time we are on. Whereas a stopwatch times it correctly, not worrying if it’s the actual time or not counting it out loud.

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A mixer is another good example of reducing performance load. A mixer allows us to mix it electronically handheld or not. Diminishing the physical effort to mix it with a hand or wooden spoon or holding the bowl to mix it in.

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Learning Portfolio 3

Question 3: Psychology & Design

Psychology is important to design because how do we learn or process information by using our brains or how we feel. Just like how our first Learning portfolio was on Aesthetic-usability effect, how people perceive aesthetic designs to be simply easier to use, we are using our mind to perceive that information. Just as how emotion can direct attention to key features, optimize sensory intake, tune decision making, ready behavioral responses, facilitate social interactions and enhance episodic memory (Gross, 2014). So we need to know the human mind so we can make better designs.

  • Gross, James J., Ph. D, & Ebook Library. (2014;2013;).Handbook of emotion regulation (Second ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Learning Portfolio 3

Question 2: Chunking

Chunking or chunks is a unit of information in short-term memory. Chunking allows you to remember big information by formatting the information into chunks so it will be easily remembered though there is a limit on how much your short term memory can process the amounts of chunks, the maximum is four, plus or minus one. For example, most people can remember a list of five words in 30 seconds but only a few can remember 10 words in 30 seconds. By turning the 10 words into chunks, two groups of three words, and one group of four words, the remembrance is essentially equivalent to the single list of five words (Lidwell, Holden, Butler, 2003).

Another example to present a good presentation you would need to have a pace for the presentation, so the audience can process the information. In conditions where the audience has to read the on-screen text and where their switching attention back and forth on screen text and pictorial elements, under a time limit, these processes may result in a high cognitive load. Whereas if it was a learner-paced presentation, the audience can review the material at their own pace and process it more clearly. So in a timed presentation, it’s good to put the information in small chunks easily to remember and process, going at a reasonable pace so the audience can process the information (Sweller, Ayres, Kalyuga, 2011).

Chunking information is often a general technique to simplify designs/loads. Only chunk information when necessary, to recall and retain information, or when information is used for problem-solving and don’t chunk information that is to be scanned or searched. (Lidwell, Holden, Butler, 2003).

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Chunking. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  40-41). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Sweller, J., Ayres, P. L., Kalyuga, S., & Ebook Library. (2011). Cognitive load theory (1st ed.). New York: Springer.

Learning Portfolio 3

Question 1 – Summary of Performance Load 

What is performance load? It’s the amount of mental and physical activity required to achieve a goal. High-performance load equals performance times and errors increase as well the chances of accomplishing the goal decreases. Low-performance load equals performance times and errors decrease as well the chances of accomplishing the goal increases. There is 2 type of Performance load: Cognitive Load and Kinematic Load. (Lidwell, Holden & Bulter, 2003).

Cognitive Load is the mental usage required to finish a goal, for example in the knowledge of how we learn, think and problem solve is connected to the cognitive load (Sweller, Ayres, Kalyuga, 2011). (Hai, Rojas, Childs, Ribaupierre, & Dubrowsky, 2015) indicates that the human working memory is limited, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) argues that performance and learning are weakened when the total cognitive load (CL) reaches working memory capacity (Hai, Rojas, Childs, Ribaupierre, & Dubrowsky, 2015). General ways to reduce cognitive load: Minimizing visual noise, chunking information that must be remembered, memory aids to assist in recall and problems solving and automating computation and memory intensive tasks.

Kinematic Load is the Physical usage required to finish a goal the amount of steps or movement, or amount of force and repetition is important to complete a task. For example in a study to reduce workplace back injuries in a lifting task, the result was that the load and the speed was important factors to the kinematic data of load and human posture, the lighter the load was the faster the load acceleration would be, but the effects of lifting a lighter load faster on your lower back can be comparable with lifting a heavy load slowly since the capability of muscle force tension is lower when muscle shortens at high speed and most common muscle injuries are linked with maximal speed in variety of sports (Lee, 2015). General ways to reduce kinematic load: Reducing the number of steps required to complete a task, minimizing range motion and travel distances and automating repetitive tasks.

Designs should minimize performance load as low as it can. Following the general ways to reduce the cognitive and kinematic load.


Haji, F. A., Rojas, D., Childs, R., Ribaupierre, S., & Dubrowski, A. (2015). Measuring cognitive load: Performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.Medical Education, 49(8), 815-827. doi:10.1111/medu.12773

Lee, T. (2015). The effects of load magnitude and lifting speed on the kinematic data of load and human posture.International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 21(1), 55-61. doi:10.1080/10803548.2015.1017956

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Sweller, J., Ayres, P. L., Kalyuga, S., & Ebook Library. (2011). Cognitive load theory (1st ed.). New York: Springer.