Learning Portfolio 2 – Item 2

Question 2: Examples of Consistency

Example 1 – Road Signs

A good example of internal and external consistency would be the stop sign, it is also a good example of aesthetic and functional consistency. The stop sign is easily recognizable and know, it’s a red pentagon with the word STOP in the middle. It’s consistently used all over the world, every country has the same stop sign a red pentagon with the word STOP in their language or their language and English (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003)


Example 2 – Fast Food Logos

Fast food logos is a good example for aesthetic consistency. For example, the Mcdonald’s logo is consistent everywhere, everyone knows the giant yellow M is Mcdonald’s, Fast food or restaurant chains usually use consistency. This provides customers to get used to the logo and be able to recognize it anywhere as well as to have the same feel, experience in any location (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003)


Example 3 – Compute program Icons

Computer program icons is a good example of functional consistency. For example, google chromes icon or Microsoft word icon on a windows computer or an apple computer, the icons are still the same or very similar. We know how to use computers by the icons, we know where the trash bin is cause it looks like a trash bin, we know how the design functions because it is consistent on every computer, this also means symbol on a web page or program like a question mark we know that symbol functionality is to have a question (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013).




Learning Portfolio 2

Question 1 – Summary of Consistency

There are four kinds of consistency in the principles of consistency: Aesthetic, Function, Internal and External. Aesthetic and External consistency is in all aspect of design, Aesthetic consistency establishes unique identities which can be easily recognized, communicated and set emotional expectations and Functional consistency enables systems to be more simple for usability and ease of learning. Using Internal and External consistency to help the system. Each kind of consistency enables, systems to be more usable and knowledgeable, it allows people to efficiently transfer knowledge to a new context, learns new things quicker as well as our focus of attention (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003).

Aesthetic consistency is consistency in style and appearance, improves recognition, communication and set emotional expectations. For example in the article (“Hotel Management,” 2013) says, thought laundry facilities isn’t normally associated with attractiveness, hotels need to make sure those room still represent the hotels designs, having the same finishes as a public area. For example by adding, porcelain floor tiles or vinyl wall coverings and having accessories like clocks, artworks, comfortable seating or a TV to populate the room.

Functional Consistency is consistency in meaning and action, enhancing usability and learnability making it possible for people leverage existing knowledge about how the design functions. For example consistency in icons/symbols on an application. Icons are like letters of the alphabet, when we see a symbol we know what it means, like a question mark on a web page or program we know it means to have a question or to ask for help. Visual Language like verbal language needs to have the rules applied consistently so it can be recognized or interpreted (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013).

Internal consistency is consistency with other elements in the system, helping people to trust the system, not making it seem as it was cobbled together. This help users learn how to use an application by designers and developers establishing rules for placement and treatment of interface elements and sticking to them. Making it easier for user interactions, for example, making a web page using a consistency of the layout throughout the pages helps the aesthetic and functional consistency of the system making it easier for people to trust and recognize the system making it easier for user interactions (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013.

External Consistency is consistency with other elements in the environment, helping the benefits of internal consistency, across multiple independent systems. Though difficult to achieve since different system rarely observes common design standards. For example in (Lee, Lee, Moon & Park, 2013) explains that since the increase of smartphone users and the use of a smartphone for personal application or business application to work in or out of the office the Korean IT industry indicates that dependency would be higher on mobile portal services than in other countries. Having to make mobile portal sites externally consistent so its user interface is similar on another platform.


Aesthetic consistency (2013). Questex Media Group, LLC Delaware.

Lee, J., Lee, D., Moon, J., & Park, M. (2013). Factors affecting the perceived usability of the mobile web portal services: Comparing simplicity with consistency.Information Technology and Management, 14(1), 43-57. doi:10.1007/s10799-012-0143-8

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Schlatter, T., Levinson, D. A., Ebook Library, & Books24x7, I. (2013). Visual usability: Principles and practices for designing digital applications. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of Elsevier.