Learning Portfolio 4 – Item 2

Question 4: Presumed, Reputed, Surface & Earned Credibility

Presumed Credibility is a website based on the general assumption in the users mind. For example, the website en.wikipedia.org is presumed as a credible website, as well as it ends with a domain name .org.

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Reputed Credibility is based on a third-party endorsement, reports or referrals. For example, the website www.newyorker.com is a reputable website, as well as it has won the webby awards countless of times.


Surface credibility is based on simple first impressions. For example the website www.nab.com.au, NAB is a banking website that is easy to use, updated frequently and professionally designed, having an aesthetic design.


Earned Credibility is based on firsthand experience that extends over time. For example, the website www.google.com is the most popular search engine in the world, it has earned the credibility for how easy it is to use as well as the information given is accurate.



Learning Portfolio 4

Question 3: Issues

  • The site has outdated information.
  • The site has way too many ads, making it hard to use.
  • Requiring for you to log in or sign up before using website.
  • Lack of knowledge on Web design doesn’t look professionally designed
  • The site has pop-up ads, with additional settings asking you if you want to leave the page or not.
  • The domain name is recognizable
  • Links are outdated, meaning a link that doesn’t work.
  • Unwanted downloads, meaning the site automatically forces you to download something before use.
  • Forcing you to complete a survey before browsing.
  • Providing links that are credible but redirecting you to an unwanted web page.
  • No photographs or information on organization members of the site.
  • Theft of personal information, while browsing the site.
  • The community-based website, covering reliable sources.
  • Site listing references for each source
  • No Ratings or peer reviews on web page
  • Unrepresented site.
  • Poor use of notification when buying off the site.
  • Poor customer service, meaning very slow or non-existent response
  • The site is difficult to browse around/to use.
  • Paid subscription just to browse the site.
  • Site note letting you view old posts meaning not able to.
  • Not multiplatform available meaning can’t access through phone, tablets, etc.
  • Site has many posts but barely any information to the posts

Learning Portfolio 4

Question 2: Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a very useful source sometimes, though can be very deceiving as well. As we all know the internet is used by everyone, Wikipedia is an encyclopedia that is built collaboratively, but collaborative to who, to everyone, the Wikipedia home page is welcome to Wikipedia the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit. That means anyone can just edit anything on Wikipedia even without an account, some might not even cite where they got the information from, so how would you know what is reliable on Wikipedia?(Fogg, 2003) This doesn’t mean all information in Wikipedia is fake or unreliable, Wikipedia is still a good place to get a good knowledge but not suitable for university use since it’s not trustworthy, expertise or credible. Though to find some good sources Wikipedia can help by looking at the reference and see where the person got the information from knowing if it’s a credible source or not, then actually read that source instead of the Wikipedia information. People perceive referenced information more credible (Go, You, Jung & Shim, 2016).

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann

Go, E., You, K. H., Jung, E., & Shim, H. (2016). Why do we use different types of websites and assign them different levels of credibility? Structural relations among users’ motives, types of websites, information credibility, and trust in the press. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 231-239. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.046

Learning Portfolio 4

Question 1: Credibility Importance

Evaluation of credibility of a website is crucial for believability since there are billions of people around the world and are connected to the internet, how do you know what information is believable or not. That’s what Credibility is, it is believability it’s how believable the website or information is, the two major components credibility comes from are trustworthiness and expertise. To evaluate an information we need to know how trustworthy it is, is the source true, fair and unbiased and the perceived knowledge, skill and expertise on the topic. (Fogg, 2003). As we all know, thanks to the internet we can get information from the internet every day and for everything, work, studies, hobbies, etc. more easily than ever. Though questions have been raised by scholars about why and how people use the source (Go, You, Jung & Shim, 2016). Deception is an everyday thing though it has only been recent, researchers started to investigate deception through computer-mediated communication (CMC). Since the internet, daily communications is more often now, and we need to know that there is little reason that deception through CMC is any less than what occurs face to face (George, Giordano & Tilley, 2016).  For example as a university student, I need to know what resources is credible or not for my researches and essays, etc. Without knowing what source is credible, how do I know that my paper is going to be reliable?

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

George, J. F., Giordano, G., & Tilley, P. A. (2016). Website credibility and deceiver credibility: Expanding prominence-interpretation theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 83-93. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.065

Go, E., You, K. H., Jung, E., & Shim, H. (2016). Why do we use different types of websites and assign them different levels of credibility? Structural relations among users’ motives, types of websites, information credibility, and trust in the press. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 231-239. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.046


Learning Portfolio 3 – Item 2

Question 4: Examples of Principles of Performance Load

A car is a good example of reduced in performance load since they help kinematic load. Because the physical effort to walk or run to get to one destination to another is no longer present using a car to get to one destination to another.

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Another example that suits the principles of performance load is a stopwatch since we don’t have to count out loud or consider about pacing and remember what time we are on. Whereas a stopwatch times it correctly, not worrying if it’s the actual time or not counting it out loud.

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A mixer is another good example of reducing performance load. A mixer allows us to mix it electronically handheld or not. Diminishing the physical effort to mix it with a hand or wooden spoon or holding the bowl to mix it in.

Learning Portfolio 3 -3


Learning Portfolio 3

Question 3: Psychology & Design

Psychology is important to design because how do we learn or process information by using our brains or how we feel. Just like how our first Learning portfolio was on Aesthetic-usability effect, how people perceive aesthetic designs to be simply easier to use, we are using our mind to perceive that information. Just as how emotion can direct attention to key features, optimize sensory intake, tune decision making, ready behavioral responses, facilitate social interactions and enhance episodic memory (Gross, 2014). So we need to know the human mind so we can make better designs.

  • Gross, James J., Ph. D, & Ebook Library. (2014;2013;).Handbook of emotion regulation (Second ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Learning Portfolio 3

Question 2: Chunking

Chunking or chunks is a unit of information in short-term memory. Chunking allows you to remember big information by formatting the information into chunks so it will be easily remembered though there is a limit on how much your short term memory can process the amounts of chunks, the maximum is four, plus or minus one. For example, most people can remember a list of five words in 30 seconds but only a few can remember 10 words in 30 seconds. By turning the 10 words into chunks, two groups of three words, and one group of four words, the remembrance is essentially equivalent to the single list of five words (Lidwell, Holden, Butler, 2003).

Another example to present a good presentation you would need to have a pace for the presentation, so the audience can process the information. In conditions where the audience has to read the on-screen text and where their switching attention back and forth on screen text and pictorial elements, under a time limit, these processes may result in a high cognitive load. Whereas if it was a learner-paced presentation, the audience can review the material at their own pace and process it more clearly. So in a timed presentation, it’s good to put the information in small chunks easily to remember and process, going at a reasonable pace so the audience can process the information (Sweller, Ayres, Kalyuga, 2011).

Chunking information is often a general technique to simplify designs/loads. Only chunk information when necessary, to recall and retain information, or when information is used for problem-solving and don’t chunk information that is to be scanned or searched. (Lidwell, Holden, Butler, 2003).

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Chunking. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  40-41). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Sweller, J., Ayres, P. L., Kalyuga, S., & Ebook Library. (2011). Cognitive load theory (1st ed.). New York: Springer.

Learning Portfolio 3

Question 1 – Summary of Performance Load 

What is performance load? It’s the amount of mental and physical activity required to achieve a goal. High-performance load equals performance times and errors increase as well the chances of accomplishing the goal decreases. Low-performance load equals performance times and errors decrease as well the chances of accomplishing the goal increases. There is 2 type of Performance load: Cognitive Load and Kinematic Load. (Lidwell, Holden & Bulter, 2003).

Cognitive Load is the mental usage required to finish a goal, for example in the knowledge of how we learn, think and problem solve is connected to the cognitive load (Sweller, Ayres, Kalyuga, 2011). (Hai, Rojas, Childs, Ribaupierre, & Dubrowsky, 2015) indicates that the human working memory is limited, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) argues that performance and learning are weakened when the total cognitive load (CL) reaches working memory capacity (Hai, Rojas, Childs, Ribaupierre, & Dubrowsky, 2015). General ways to reduce cognitive load: Minimizing visual noise, chunking information that must be remembered, memory aids to assist in recall and problems solving and automating computation and memory intensive tasks.

Kinematic Load is the Physical usage required to finish a goal the amount of steps or movement, or amount of force and repetition is important to complete a task. For example in a study to reduce workplace back injuries in a lifting task, the result was that the load and the speed was important factors to the kinematic data of load and human posture, the lighter the load was the faster the load acceleration would be, but the effects of lifting a lighter load faster on your lower back can be comparable with lifting a heavy load slowly since the capability of muscle force tension is lower when muscle shortens at high speed and most common muscle injuries are linked with maximal speed in variety of sports (Lee, 2015). General ways to reduce kinematic load: Reducing the number of steps required to complete a task, minimizing range motion and travel distances and automating repetitive tasks.

Designs should minimize performance load as low as it can. Following the general ways to reduce the cognitive and kinematic load.


Haji, F. A., Rojas, D., Childs, R., Ribaupierre, S., & Dubrowski, A. (2015). Measuring cognitive load: Performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.Medical Education, 49(8), 815-827. doi:10.1111/medu.12773

Lee, T. (2015). The effects of load magnitude and lifting speed on the kinematic data of load and human posture.International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 21(1), 55-61. doi:10.1080/10803548.2015.1017956

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Sweller, J., Ayres, P. L., Kalyuga, S., & Ebook Library. (2011). Cognitive load theory (1st ed.). New York: Springer.


Learning Portfolio 2 – Item 2

Question 2: Examples of Consistency

Example 1 – Road Signs

A good example of internal and external consistency would be the stop sign, it is also a good example of aesthetic and functional consistency. The stop sign is easily recognizable and know, it’s a red pentagon with the word STOP in the middle. It’s consistently used all over the world, every country has the same stop sign a red pentagon with the word STOP in their language or their language and English (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003)


Example 2 – Fast Food Logos

Fast food logos is a good example for aesthetic consistency. For example, the Mcdonald’s logo is consistent everywhere, everyone knows the giant yellow M is Mcdonald’s, Fast food or restaurant chains usually use consistency. This provides customers to get used to the logo and be able to recognize it anywhere as well as to have the same feel, experience in any location (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003)


Example 3 – Compute program Icons

Computer program icons is a good example of functional consistency. For example, google chromes icon or Microsoft word icon on a windows computer or an apple computer, the icons are still the same or very similar. We know how to use computers by the icons, we know where the trash bin is cause it looks like a trash bin, we know how the design functions because it is consistent on every computer, this also means symbol on a web page or program like a question mark we know that symbol functionality is to have a question (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013).




Learning Portfolio 2

Question 1 – Summary of Consistency

There are four kinds of consistency in the principles of consistency: Aesthetic, Function, Internal and External. Aesthetic and External consistency is in all aspect of design, Aesthetic consistency establishes unique identities which can be easily recognized, communicated and set emotional expectations and Functional consistency enables systems to be more simple for usability and ease of learning. Using Internal and External consistency to help the system. Each kind of consistency enables, systems to be more usable and knowledgeable, it allows people to efficiently transfer knowledge to a new context, learns new things quicker as well as our focus of attention (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003).

Aesthetic consistency is consistency in style and appearance, improves recognition, communication and set emotional expectations. For example in the article (“Hotel Management,” 2013) says, thought laundry facilities isn’t normally associated with attractiveness, hotels need to make sure those room still represent the hotels designs, having the same finishes as a public area. For example by adding, porcelain floor tiles or vinyl wall coverings and having accessories like clocks, artworks, comfortable seating or a TV to populate the room.

Functional Consistency is consistency in meaning and action, enhancing usability and learnability making it possible for people leverage existing knowledge about how the design functions. For example consistency in icons/symbols on an application. Icons are like letters of the alphabet, when we see a symbol we know what it means, like a question mark on a web page or program we know it means to have a question or to ask for help. Visual Language like verbal language needs to have the rules applied consistently so it can be recognized or interpreted (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013).

Internal consistency is consistency with other elements in the system, helping people to trust the system, not making it seem as it was cobbled together. This help users learn how to use an application by designers and developers establishing rules for placement and treatment of interface elements and sticking to them. Making it easier for user interactions, for example, making a web page using a consistency of the layout throughout the pages helps the aesthetic and functional consistency of the system making it easier for people to trust and recognize the system making it easier for user interactions (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013.

External Consistency is consistency with other elements in the environment, helping the benefits of internal consistency, across multiple independent systems. Though difficult to achieve since different system rarely observes common design standards. For example in (Lee, Lee, Moon & Park, 2013) explains that since the increase of smartphone users and the use of a smartphone for personal application or business application to work in or out of the office the Korean IT industry indicates that dependency would be higher on mobile portal services than in other countries. Having to make mobile portal sites externally consistent so its user interface is similar on another platform.


Aesthetic consistency (2013). Questex Media Group, LLC Delaware.

Lee, J., Lee, D., Moon, J., & Park, M. (2013). Factors affecting the perceived usability of the mobile web portal services: Comparing simplicity with consistency.Information Technology and Management, 14(1), 43-57. doi:10.1007/s10799-012-0143-8

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Schlatter, T., Levinson, D. A., Ebook Library, & Books24x7, I. (2013). Visual usability: Principles and practices for designing digital applications. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of Elsevier.